After the second siege by the Ottomans in 1571, the Venetians decided to strengthen the town’s fortifications. The impressive New Fortress was built (1576 to 1588) on the mound named St Marks on plans of the famous military engineer Ferrante Vitelli, who also updated the town’s defense with ditched walls, bastions and auxiliary fortifications. During the British Mandate some more modern defensive constructions were added, like the fortified stone barracks at the top of the fortress, the ultimate line of defense. And also the brick building which nowadays houses the Corfu Naval Station. In 1923, both the Old and the New Fortress were bombarded by the Italian Air Force during the “Corfu Incident”. It is to be noted that, at that time, Greek refugees from Asia Minor had found shelter in the New Fortress’ underground galleries.